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Protestants at court were dismissed and this left James with a predominantly Catholic court dominated by Robert Spencer, Earl of Sunderland. Advised by the Quaker William Penn, who believed that Protestant were a greater danger to the country than Catholics, James decided that the only way ahead for himself was the dissolve Parliament, repeal the Penal Laws, and hold a general election whereby the result would end in a Catholic Parliament that would rubber stamp all that the king wanted.

The first stage of this was to issue the 1 st Declaration of Indulgence in April , which suspended the Penal Laws. He then dissolved Parliament on July 2 nd , James also used agents to canvass the people outside of London as to their response to what he was doing. James worked on the belief that no one wanted another civil war. In September the announcement was made that the Queen was pregnant.

James now had the added incentive — to secure a Catholic nation for his heir. In April , James issued another Declaration of Indulgence. He ordered that it had to be read out in church on two successive Sundays. In May , seven Bishops petitioned against this and they were put in the Tower charged with seditious libel. On June 30 th , all seven Bishops were acquitted and this was a serious blow to James.

He would have also noted that there was public joy at their acquittal. On June 10 th , the situation became more intense with the birth of James Edward. James now had his heir to the throne who would have been brought up as a Catholic. Many in Parliament also assumed that any child of James Edward would also be brought up as a Catholic and they saw a Catholic monarchy stretching into the future. It was a view that they did not like.

On the same day that the seven Bishops were acquitted, an all-party Invitation was sent to William of Orange. The invitation crossed party lines and was symbolic of the fear that politicians of all hue had of the potential for another civil war or the intervention of a European catholic power in support of James. Confronted by these moves — and the knowledge that William of Orange had made it clear that he intended to invade — James lost control of the situation.

He effectively reversed many of the policies he had introduced. Rather than stem the tide, this only served to make him seem more devious, that he would do anything to maintain his power. Anne of Denmark Sophia of Mecklenburg [] 1. James II of England Henry IV of France Joan III of Navarre [] 3. Henrietta Maria of France Marie de' Medici Joanna of Austria [].

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Germains thereupon, , in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" Somers Tracts , ed. The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified. See "English Historical Documents —", ed. McFerran says parts of his bowel sent to the parish church of St.

Germain-en-Laye were rediscovered in and are the only known remains left. The English Illustrated Magazine s article on St.

The History Press | James II: Will the real King of England please stand up?

Germain from September concurs. Hilliam, Hilliam disputes that his remains were either scattered or lost, stating that when revolutionaries broke into the church, they were amazed at the body's preservation and it was put on public exhibition where miracles were said to have happened. Hilliam states that the body was then kept "above ground" until George IV heard about it and ordered the body buried in the parish church of St Germain-en-Laye in The London Gazette.

Economic History Association EH. Retrieved 3 January The Final Crisis of the Stuart Monarchy.

Revised Edition. Random House, London. St Catherine's Press. Edited by Geoffrey H. White and R. Lea, see under Duke of York. Samuel Pepys recorded in his diary that James "did eye my wife mightily". James's taste in women was often maligned, with Gilbert Burnet famously remarking that James's mistresses must have been "given him by his priests as a penance. American Historical Review. The Royal African Company first ed.

Retrieved 24 April London: Jonathan Cape. Callow writes that Anne "made the greatest single impact upon his thinking" and that she converted shortly after the Restoration, "almost certainly before her husband". According to Turner, James's reaction to the agreement was "The King shall be obeyed, and I would be glad if all his subjects would learn of me to obey him". Turner, Covenanters , as they did not recognize James or any uncovenanted king as a legitimate ruler, would not petition James for relief from the penal laws.

Macaulay says Farmer "pretended to turn Papist". Prall, at , calls him a "Catholic sympathizer". Miller, at , says "although he had not declared himself a Catholic, it was believed he was no longer an Anglican. All sources agree that Farmer's bad reputation as a "person of scandalous character" was as much a deterrent to his nomination as his uncertain religious loyalties.

See, e. Queen Anne. Yale University Press , Harris, —, analyses the legal nature of the abdication; James did not agree that he had abdicated. The Jacobites, Britain and Europe, — Manchester University Press. The Irish Review. Ireland and the Jacobite Cause, — Four Courts, Dublin.

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Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 15 October He "wished that all his subjects could be as convinced as he was that the Catholic church was the one true church. He was also convinced that the established church was maintained artificially by penal laws that proscribed nonconformity. If these were removed, and conversions to Catholicism were encouraged, then many would take place. In the event his optimism was misplaced, for few converted.

James underestimated the appeal of Protestantism in general and the Church of England in particular. His was the zeal and even bigotry of a narrow-minded convert Catholic Herald. Retrieved 20 June Peter, Westminster , Volume 10 Harleian Society, , p. Ashley, Maurice The Glorious Revolution of New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Belloc, Hilaire James the Second. Philadelphia: J. Callow, John Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. Claydon, Tony Oxford University Press.

Devine, T. The Scottish Nation — London: Penguin Books. Harris, Tim Penguin Books. Hilliam, David Jones, J.

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King James II. - Irish Biography

The Revolution of in England. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Kenyon, J. The Stuart Constitution —, Documents and Commentary , 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. London: Little, Brown.

James II of England

MacLeod, John Dynasty, the Stuarts, — London: Hodder and Stoughton. Macaulay, Thomas Babington Popular Edition in Two Volumes.

King James: The Man Behind The Myth (Documentary)

London: Longmans. Mann, Alastair In James intensified his Roman Catholic policy and dismissed his Anglican brothers-in-law the earl of Clarendon and the earl of Rochester. Magdalen College, Oxford , was given over for the use of Roman Catholics, and a papal nuncio was officially accredited to St. In April James issued the so-called Declaration of Indulgence , suspending the laws against Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters alike; in July he dissolved Parliament, and in September he launched an intensive campaign to win over the Protestant dissenters and with their aid secure a new Parliament more amenable to his wishes.

What those wishes were is still not clear: some of his utterances suggest a genuine belief in religious toleration as a matter of principle; others point to the establishment of Roman Catholicism as the dominant if not the exclusive religion of the state. Ever since the spring of many English leaders had been in touch with William of Orange , the husband of the heiress presumptive Mary and the champion of Protestant Europe against Louis XIV of France.