Underlying all attempts at dialogue, however, is the presupposition that it is ontologically possible for men to reach one another and to communicate meaningfully. Both the topic intersubjectivity and the method phenomenology are relative newcomers to philosophy and in a sense they arrived together.
Ever since Descartes, philosophers have labored to explain how a subject knows an object.
But not until the twentieth century did they begin to ask the much more fundamental and vastly more mysterious question - how does one subject encounter another subject precisely as another subject? The problem of intersubjectivity is thus one that belongs in a quite special way to contemporary philosophy.
1. Life and Career
Professional care implies a kind of specific social relation among subjects who participate in it. It adds to factual care the technical-scientific dimension that distinguishes it from what is practiced by common sense, besides supporting itself on intersubjectivity, on the body of knowledge and on the biographical situation of the professional caregiver. The relationship in the action of caring in Nursing involves a social context that expresses different conceptions of health, disease, needs and doing itself by the nurse, which can lead to positive and negative experiences by individuals involved in the promotion, prevention and recovery of health.
At the same time, understanding care in Nursing occurs through typification of the action and it is rooted in the socio-historical context of subjects - individual and collective - involved in social relationship. This typification is constituted through a uniform and homogeneous relation of determinations and social conditions and health, sedimented in experiences brought from the common sense to the professional world. Understanding the action of caring will happen in depth as it is guided by the reciprocity of intentions and expectations between the person being cared for and the professional caregiver.
The reciprocal perspectives are typical constructions of objects of thought that reflect the understanding of this object and its aspects known to people in the social world 4. Contemporaneous Nursing has Florence Nightingale as pioneer, who established important foundations for professional Nursing in the world, giving rise to the typification of the action of caring for the profession.
However, the typical characteristics of the original care should not be crystallized, taken as final and finished knowledge. The typical action of caring, therefore, is not fixed, being continuously restructured from different situations as a basis for motivations that will lead to new actions of caring. This approach draws on the phenomenological interview for intuitive understanding of the experience, in order to access the experiences of the social world.
This type of interview is a feature that allows the individual who experiences the phenomenon to express the meaning of their action developed in the world of their relationships 9. The interview presupposes a face to face relationship - direct and authentic encounter among the subjects - taken as the most expressive of social relationship 4. It enables one to remain open and accessible to the intentional actions of another, constituting a we-relation permissible for the flow of consciousness of one to present to the other 4.
It should be guided by questions that evoke the motivation, which underlies and drives the action. With this understanding, the thematic content of the questions aims to insert the subject interviewed in the context of his past and present experiences reasons-why and send him to his future reasons-for 4. Thus, access to the meaning of the action involves a particular way of looking at a particular aspect of a person living, from the internal temporal consciousness that is based on a motivational context 4.
The speech of the subjects regarding their motivation is the externalization of their intentions, which are captured by the researcher or by nurses during the interview. The intersubjective understanding through the seizure of the motives of human action structured in the midst of the experience and, therefore, the action that integrates the social relationship are searched. Careful reading and critical analysis of the content of the speech enable identification and description of the meanings of the action - the categorization - with consequent understanding of the phenomenon investigated.
They constitute the so-called second-level constructs, emerging and originated from experiences in the social world 4. Those categories express the relevant aspects of actions that involve social phenomena as they occur in the social world, and involve both the reflection of the subjects and the researcher's view. Moreover, the meanings are not necessarily mutually exclusive, as some aspects may be present in more than one category since they are interrelated in the experience of the subjects. The organized set of concrete categories of the experience allows the objective construction of the typical action, considered a theoretical construct 9.
Both from the perspective of scientific research and from the foundation for professional care, understanding the typical action in the social world has as a guiding axis the dialogue among the results of the research, the theoretical framework of social phenomenology and scientific evidence related to the topic under study. This triad will enable a theoretically grounded and contextualized view of the phenomenon, unfolding into new perspectives of thinking and doing Nursing. Thus, the content that constitutes the typification of the subject's or group's action investigated, under the theoretical point of view or action of care, must be interpreted in light of the scientific evidence relating to the topic studied, considering the sociohistorical context that permeates the experience in focus.
This dialogical relation is relevant and necessary for better understanding and clarification of the phenomenon investigated. Such appreciation permeates the recognition of the person considering the amount of knowledge and experience acquired over a lifetime, as well as biographical situation in which it she is at the time of care. That will allow the professional to launch an expanded vision on care, based on the life of the subject and considering the social context in which he is.
Such framework values the intersubjective dimension of care and translates as the most original of the relationships among human beings. It is emphasized that the subjects of care in Nursing, both individual and collectively, are embedded in a socio-historical and cultural context that needs to be valued. In this sense, the biographical situation and the body of knowledge available to them are important signs for planning and performance of actions for professional care.
In the research field, this framework brings out the importance of careful thinking from the perspective of relations emanating from it, considering the perspective of those involved in the action of caring in Nursing.
ISBN 13: 9789024750238
Na trilha da fenomenologia: um caminho para a pesquisa em enfermagem. Texto Contexto Enferm.
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